Postpartum

Jamie Nesi suffered mild depression in 2004. Her doctor prescribed a low dose of Prozac, which eased her symptoms. In 2005, Nesi got pregnant with her first child and discontinued the medication at her gynaecologist’s recommendation. For the first two trimesters, things went smoothly and “everyone said I was having a perfect pregnancy,” said Nesi in a phone interview.

However, panic attacks surfaced in Nesi around the 6th month. Soon her sporadic anxiety transformed into full-scale depression that hinted possibility of postpartum depression. “I didn’t want leave my bed. I avoided people, kept crying, ate poorly and even regretted having a baby,” She then got back on a low dose of antidepressants. “It was a very difficult decision; I spoke to my husband, and finally decided on taking antidepressants to prevent postpartum depression.” Nesi says.

Nesi’s depression subsided, but periodic pangs of sadness existed throughout the course of her pregnancy. Two weeks after her son was born, a powerful shift in mood overwhelmed her, swelling into an episode of postpartum depression that lasted four months. “My mother had to come down and take care of my baby,” says Nesi. their adolescence. Furthermore, as Hay’s team was able to include effects of environmental and socioeconomic circumstances, as well as the presence of postpartum depression in the mother’s psychological health, they discovered other stresses in the mother’s life that could explain a child’s antisocial or violent behaviour —smoking, alcohol use, relationship problems and poverty. “It’s antenatal depression instead of postpartum depression, that seems to turn a child violent in nature,” says Hay.

Compared with their healthy counterparts, depressed women are found to have a slightly higher probability of miscarrying and early delivery, making them vulnerable to postpartum depression. Also, a 2006 study found that babies born to depressed mothers were more irritable, less attentive and displayed fewer facial expressions.

Annually, 14% to 23% of pregnant woman in the U.S. experience antenatal depression – which likely causes postpartum depression – according to a joint report by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG) and the American Psychiatric Association. ACOG made an urgent call for depression screening as early into pregnancy because “untreated maternal depression inhibits an infant’s cognitive, neurologic and motor skill development”.

Reasons behind high postpartum depression rates

Professionals agree that many cases of antenatal depression which may cause postpartum depression are neglected, partly because “American women prefer a watch-and-wait, ‘Don’t ask, don’t tell’ approach to pregnancy illness, due to reluctance to treatment that could impair the foetus, coupled with societal stigma related to postpartum depression” —says Dr. Shari Lusskin, reproductive psychiatry director at New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Centre.

Furthermore, there is a shortage of trained experts in the field of antenatal and postpartum depression. At NYU, a program run by Lusskin trains ob-gyns to identify the problem early by recognising symptoms of prenatal mood disorders through asking patients simple questions

Postpartum depression: not a standalone disorder

Psychologists say that many women like Nesi who experience postpartum depression have had depressive symptoms during pregnancy or even earlier. A 2007 study found that of 4,400 pregnant women, more than 10% suffered postpartum depression, and nearly half of those women experienced depression beforehand, either during pregnancy or in the nine months before they got pregnant.

Due to high postpartum depression rates, researchers have increasingly focused on antenatal depression (depression during pregnancy) to observe a connection between mothers’ antenatal depression and negative behaviour in children. It potentially involves womb environments and their long-term impact on growing foetuses — a process called “foetal programming.” Hormone levels in the mother’s body and postpartum depression are influenced by alcohol or drug use, poor nutrition and stress, possibly affecting the baby’s development, birth weight and susceptibility to disease.

In 2003, a large Finnish study found that sons of antenatal-depressed women, who may have also suffered postpartum depression, were more likely to commit crimes before they turned 30. Similarly, a new study led by Dale Hay, professor of psychology at Cardiff University in UK, found that children born to antenatal-depressed women with or without postpartum depression, were four times more liable to be caught for violent crimes by age 16 than children of healthy mothers. The study interviewed 120 random women from South London during their pregnancy and after delivery. Researchers also interviewed the participants’ children periodically throughout about their mood.

But once antenatal depression is diagnosed, drug treatments are difficult decisions due to scarce safety usage information provided on legal drugs, including antidepressants that may prevent postpartum depression.

As for depressed women like Nesi who fall into the high-risk category of chronic mood disorders causing postpartum depression, antidepressants may be essential, says Lusskin, since “risks of untreated ailments are known (e.g. suffering postpartum depression) and may be worse than the potential harmful effects of taking the drug.”

Yet many women with milder cases of depression decline medications. Ariela Frieder, psychiatrist at Montefiore Medical Centre in NY, says treatment for these women should focus on the particular stressors and contributors to their mood disorder. “Depressions like postpartum depression have multiple origins, like life conditions, genetic factors, or a present history of depression,” says Frieder,

At Touch Institute in Miami, massage therapist and psychologist Tiffany Field trains husbands and significant others to give their pregnant women restorative massages as her 2008 study of 200 depressed pregnant women discovered that women who received back massages biweekly have reduced stress hormones levels, depressive thoughts and premature birth and low birth weight in infants than women who did not get the massages.

Like many other conditions, social support from loved ones aids one’s health, preventing postpartum depression. Frieder feels that it’s “important to educate them and let them know what’s happening. Because a lot of times, [they] just don’t know how they can help”.

Mummys stop exaggerating! It’s just a blue!

by The Anti Depression Team on

The line separating postpartum blues and postpartum depression is very fine. So how does one know that they are depressed? The early development of postpartum depression may seem very similar to postpartum blues. This is generally mild and does not require extensive treatment.

Postpartum depression is generally more common with the loss of the child. It may not, however, somewhat surprising that elective abortion does not result in a higher rate of being depressed.

The telltale signs that one is suffering from postpartum depression is when one starts having some changing of habits like feeling overly depressed, lacking energy, being unable to sleep, changes in diet and the loss of sexual drive. Physical signs like hairloss and even psychological issues such as delusions, hallucinations, homicidal and suicidal thoughts, are also huge indicators that they are suffering from postpartum depression.

If the depressed woman is left without treatment, this disorder may worsen and cause psychotic notions such as suicidal thoughts and homicidal thoughts. It is due to this that a depressed woman should seek treatment and be monitored closely.

It should not be taken for granted that a depressed woman is either suffering from postpartum depression or even the much milder postpartum blues. One should look out for the possibility of postpartum mania, which is more severe and potentially more destructive to a person than just being depressed. Often, this postpartum mania results in severe depression and bipolarity later on in life.

Postpartum Depression is not just a women’s thing now!

Do not mistake postpartum depression as something that only women have to undergo. Fathers, too, are prone to feeling depressed after the birth of their new offspring. Fathers may not undergo the hormonal changes that are experienced by mothers but they do have to undergo certain lifestyle changes that are sudden and often very drastic. […]

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Postpartum depression CASE STUDY: RESEARCH FROM EASTERN VIRGINIA MEDICAL SCHOOL

In a research conducted by Eastern Virginia Medical School, it was illustrated that 10% of the fathers involved, may suffer from Postpartum Depression. In addition, the risk of Postpartum Depression was also doubled in the male population. The incidence of Postpartum Depression may also be triggered by cultural differences and varying government policies in different […]

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